A national Big Data1 innovation ecosystem is essential to enabling knowledge discovery from and confident action informed by the vast resource of new and diverse datasets that are rapidly becoming available in nearly every aspect of life. Big Data has the potential to radically improve the lives of all Americans. It is now possible to combine disparate, dynamic, and distributed datasets and enable everything from predicting the future behavior of complex systems to precise medical treatments, smart energy usage, and focused educational curricula. Government agency research and public-private partnerships, together with the education and training of future data scientists, will enable applications that directly benefit society and the economy of the Nation. To derive the greatest benefits from the many, rich sources of Big Data, the Administration announced a "Big Data Research and Development Initiative" on March 29, 2012.2 Dr. John P. Holdren, Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, stated that the initiative "promises to transform our ability to use Big Data for scientific discovery, environmental and biomedical research, education, and national security." The Federal Big Data Research and Development Strategic Plan (Plan) builds upon the promise and excitement of the myriad applications enabled by Big Data with the objective of guiding Federal agencies as they develop and expand their individual mission-driven programs and investments related to Big Data.